QUESTION: On your website, you provide a list of governing documents for each type of common interest development. Why do stock co-ops not have CC&Rs? Does a proprietary lease substitute for CC&Rs since they both describe the rights and obligations of the membership?
ANSWER: I don't include CC&Rs for stock cooperatives because they don't exist. The functional equivalent is the proprietary lease or occupancy agreement.
Different Approaches. Condominium CC&Rs and a stock cooperative's proprietary lease (or occupancy agreement) both accomplish the same task by using different legal structures.
Condominiums. In a 100-unit condominium development, members own their units. In addition, each owns a piece of the common areas. CC&Rs (equitable servitudes) are recorded against each of the 100 condominiums and binds their owners.
Stock Co-op. In a 100-unit stock cooperative, there is only one owner--the corporation. The corporation owns the entire development including the units (called apartments). Members cannot buy an apartment. Instead, they buy stock in the corporation. A proprietary lease or occupancy agreement creates a landlord-tenant relationship between the corporation and the shareholder that gives the person the right to occupy an apartment. In other words, you own a share in the corporation that owns the building, which gives you the right to "rent" an apartment (occupy a unit).
Enforcement Mechanism. If a shareholder breaches the occupancy agreement, he can be evicted from the property. Condo associations often wish they had that kind of authority but they don't. They cannot evict a member because the association does not own the units. At best, an association can fine, suspend privileges, and seek judicial enforcement of its restrictions.
Conversions. Stock cooperatives are primarily an East Coast phenomenon. Very few were built in California because condominiums are a superior form of ownership when it comes to loans and refinancing. As a result, condominiums have higher market values. That is why so many co-ops have converted to condos over the years. To see the different documents for each form of ownership, see governing document chart.
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